By H. Barry Waldman, DDS, MPH, PHD; Steven P. Perlman, DDS, MSCD, DHL (HON); and, Karen A. Raposa, RDH, MBA
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disorders defined by a significant impairment in social interaction and communication and the presence of unusual behaviors and interests. Many individuals with ASDs have atypical ways of learning, paying attention or reacting to different sensations and stimuli. The assessment and learning abilities of youngsters and adults with ASDs can vary from gifted to severely challenged. ASDs begin before the age of 3 and last throughout a person’s life. It occurs in all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated in 2018 that one in 37 boys and one in 51 girls have some form of autism. It is unclear if the increase is due to changes in how one identifies people with ASDs or whether it is an increase in prevalence.
People with ASDs differ greatly in the way they act and their capabilities.
Social skills: They have limited or no interaction with other people, might not make eye contact and just want to be alone. They may have difficulty understanding other people’s feelings or talking about their own feelings. Children might not like to be held or cuddled. They may not know how to talk, play or relate to other people.
Speech, language and communication: About 40% of ASD children do not talk at all. Others repeat words or questions directed to them, rather than responding. They may not understand gestures. Some can speak well, but have a hard time listening to others.
Repeated behaviors and routines: Individuals with ASDs may repeat actions. They may want to maintain routines and have trouble with changes. Children with ASDs may have significant delays in language, social and cognitive skills, but may be great at solving puzzles or computer problems.
Causes and Treatment
It is suspected that there are numerous causes for ASDs due to complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors. Studies of twins have shown that in identical twins, there is about a 75% rate of both twins having autism, while in fraternal twins this occurs about 3% of the time. The cause of ASDs in most people is unknown, however, it tends to occur more frequently than expected among individuals who have other particular medical conditions, including Fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, congenital rubella syndrome and untreated phenylketonuria.
Although there is no known cure for ASDs, early and intensive education can help children develop and learn new skills. The goal of these efforts is to help the child to talk, interact, plan, learn and care for his/her needs. While some medications can relieve some of the symptoms, structured teaching of skills (often called behavioral intervention) is currently the most effective treatment.
Associated Oral Conditions
The complex neuro/developmental disabilities compound and exacerbate the all too frequent oral health disorders in the general child and adult populations, including: poor oral hygiene, increased risk for caries, generalized periodontal problems, oral-facial pain, xerostomia, poor nutrition and poor diet.
Dental Services in a Private Practice
The actual technical aspects of care are similar to the delivery of services for the general population of patients. Modifications in practitioner-patient-staff-parent or guardian interactions, however, may be necessary. Providing dental care and ensuring follow-up home care for individuals with ASDs will vary by patient age, type and level of the particular disorder, as well as an appreciation of family/living arrangements. An underlying understanding of patients with ASDs will facilitate the actual provision of care.
- Not all patients with ASDs are alike.
- They may be hypo- or hypersensitive to sight, sounds and smells.
- Nonverbal patients may carry out self-abusive behavioral acts as their only means of expression for pain.
- You may need to attempt different modalities of behavioral guidance.
- Additional time may be necessary.
- Schedule appointments in line with behavioral medication.
- Keep wait times to a minimum to help reduce anxiety.
- With proper consent, medical immobilization/protective stabilization may be a necessary behavioral guidance technique.
- Use simple verbal and nonverbal communication.
- Use adequate pain control for both restorative and surgical procedures
H. Barry Waldman, DDS, MPH, PhD, SUNY Distinguished Teaching Professor, Department of General Dentistry, Stony Brook University, NY.
Steven P. Perlman, DDS, MScD, DHL (Hon), Global Clinical Director, Special Olympics, Special Smiles; Clinical Professor of Pediatric Dentistry, Boston University Goldman School of Dental Medicine.
Karen A. Raposa, RDH, MBA, Published Author and International Speaker, Clinical Education Manager, Hu-Friedy Mfg. Co., Raynham, Massachusetts